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Petrified wood is a type of fossil that consists of fossil wood where all the organic materials have been replaced with minerals. The minerals are retaining the original structure of the wood. The petrifaction occurs underground, when wood becomes buried under sediment. Water full of Minerals is flowing through the sediment. deposits from the minerals and the plants decay away, and so a stone cast forms in its place. When iron is added to the perifaction, the quartz crystals become stained with a yellow or red color.